Lecture 11

Multidimensionality and Missing Data

Jihong Zhang

Educational Statistics and Research Methods

Previous Class

1. Show how to estimate unidimensional latent variable models with polytomous data
• Also know as Polytomous Item response theory (IRT) or Item factor analysis (IFA)
2. Distributions appropriate for polytomous (discrete; data with lower/upper limits)

Today’s Lecture Objectives

1. Course evaluation
2. How to model multidimensional factor structures
3. How to estimate models with missing data

Course evaluation

The course evaluation will be open on April 23 and end on May 3. It is important for me. Please make sure fill out the survey.

Example Data: Conspiracy Theories

• Today’s example is from a bootstrap resample of 177 undergraduate students at a large state university in the Midwest.
• The survey was a measure of 10 questions about their beliefs in various conspiracy theories that were being passed around the internet in the early 2010s
• All item responses were on a 5-point Likert scale with:
1. Strong Disagree
2. Disagree
3. Neither Agree nor Disagree
4. Agree
5. Strongly Agree
• The purpose of this survey was to study individual beliefs regarding conspiracies.
• Our purpose in using this instrument is to provide a context that we all may find relevant as many of these conspiracies are still prevalent.

Multidimensionality

More than one Latent Variable - Latent Parameter Space

We need to create latent variables by specifying which items measure which latent variables in an analysis model

• This procedure Called different names by different fields:

• Alignment (education measurement)

• Factor pattern matrix (factor analysis)

• Q-matrix (Question matrix; diagnostic models and multidimensional IRT)

From Q-matrix to Model

The alignment provides a specification of which latent variables are measured by which items

• Sometimes we say items “load onto” factors

The math definition of either of these terms is simply whether or not a latent variable appears as a predictor for an item

• For instance, item one appears to measure nongovernment conspiracies, meaning its alignment (row vector of the Q-matrix)

         Gov NonGov
item1     0      1 

From Q-matrix to Model (Cont.)

The model for the first item is then built with only the factors measured by the item as being present:

$\newcommand{\bmatrix}[1]{\begin{bmatrix}#1\end{bmatrix}} \newcommand{\bb}[1]{\boldsymbol{#1}} \newcommand{\green}[1]{\color{green}{#1}} \newcommand{\red}[1]{\color{red}{#1}} f(E(Y_{p1}|\bb{\theta_p})=\mu_1 + \bb{0}*\lambda_{11}\theta_{p1} +\bb{1}*\lambda_{21}\theta_{p2} \\=\mu_1 + \lambda_{21}\theta_{p2}$

Where:

• $\mu_1$ is the item intercept

• $\lambda_{\bf{1}1}$ is the factor loading for item 1 (the first subscript) loaded on factor 1 (the second subscript)

• $\theta_{p1}$ is the value of the latent variable for person p and factor 1

The second factor is not included in the model for the item

More Q-matrix

If item 1 is only measured by NonGov, we can map item responses to factor loadings and theta via Q-matrix

\begin{align} f(E(Y_{p1}|\boldsymbol{\theta_p}) &=\mu_1+q_{11}(\lambda_{11}\theta_{p1})+q_{12}(\lambda_{12}\theta_{p2})\\ &= \mu_1 + \boldsymbol{\theta_p\text{diag}(q)\lambda_1}\\ &= \mu_1 + [\theta_{p1}\ \ \theta_{p2}]\begin{bmatrix}0\ \ 0\\0\ \ 1\end{bmatrix}\begin{bmatrix}\lambda_{11}\\\lambda_{12}\end{bmatrix}\\ &= \mu_1 + [\theta_{p1}\ \ \theta_{p2}]\begin{bmatrix}0\\\lambda_{12}\end{bmatrix}\\ &= \mu_1 + \lambda_{12}\theta_{p2} \end{align}

Where:

• $\boldsymbol\lambda_1$ = $\begin{bmatrix}\lambda_{11}\\\lambda_{12}\end{bmatrix}$ contains all possible factor loadings for item 1 (size 2 $\times$ 1)

• $\boldsymbol\theta_p=[\theta_{p1}\ \ \theta_{p2}]$ contains the factor scores for person p

• $\text{diag}(\boldsymbol q_i)=\boldsymbol q_i \begin{bmatrix}1\ 0 \\0\ 1 \end{bmatrix}=[0\ \ 1]\begin{bmatrix}1\ 0 \\0\ 1 \end{bmatrix}=\begin{bmatrix}0\ \ 0 \\0\ \ 1 \end{bmatrix}$ is a diagonal matrix of ones times the vector of Q-matrix entries for item 1.

Q-matrix for Conspiracy Data

        Gov NonGov
item1    0      1(q12)
item2    1(q21) 0
item3    0      1(q32)
item4    0      1(q42)
item5    1(q51) 0
item6    0      1(q61)
item7    1(q71) 0
item8    1(q81) 0
item9    1(q91) 0
item10   0      1(q10,1)

Given the Q-matrix each item has its own model using the alignment specifications.

$f(E(Y_{p1}|\boldsymbol{\theta}_p))=\mu_1+\lambda_{12}\theta_{p2}\\ f(E(Y_{p\red2}|\boldsymbol{\theta}_p))=\mu_1+\lambda_{\red{2}1}\theta_{p\red1}\\ \cdots\\ f(E(Y_{p\red{10}}|\bb{\theta}_p))=\mu_1+\lambda_{\red{10,}\green1}\theta_{p\red{10}}\\$

GRM is one of the most popular model for ordered categorical response

$P(Y_{ic}|\theta) = 1 - P^*(Y_{i1}|\theta) \ \ \text{if}\ c=1\\ P(Y_{ic}|\theta) = P^*(Y_{i,c-1}|\theta)-P^*(Y_{i,c}|\theta) \ \ \text{if}\ 1<c<C_i\\ P(Y_{ic}|\theta) = P^*(Y_{i,C-1}|\theta) \ \ \text{if}\ c=C_i\\$where probability of response larger than $c$:

$P^*(Y_{i,c}|\theta) = P(Y_{i,c}>c|\theta)=\frac{\text{exp}(\red{\mu_{ic}+\lambda_{ij}\theta_{pj}})} {1+\text{exp}(\red{\mu_{ic}+\lambda_{ij}\theta_{pj}})}$

With:

• j denotes which factor the item loads on
• $C_i-1$ has ordered intercept intercepts1: $\mu_1 > \mu_2 > \cdots > \mu_{C_i-1}$
• In Stan, we model item thresholds (difficulty) $\tau_{c}$ =$\mu_c$, so that $\tau_1<\tau_2<\cdots<\tau_{C_i-1}$

Stan Parameter Block

parameters {
array[nObs] vector[nFactors] theta;       // the latent variables (one for each person)
array[nItems] ordered[maxCategory-1] thr; // the item thresholds (one for each item category minus one)
cholesky_factor_corr[nFactors] thetaCorrL;
}

Note:

1. theta is a array (for the MVN prior)
2. thr is the same as the unidimensional model
3. lambda is the vector of all factor loadings to be estimated (needs nLoadings)
4. thetaCorrL is of type chelesky_factor_corr, a built in type that identifies this as lower diagonal of a Cholesky-factorized correlation matrix

Stan Transformed Data Block

transformed data{

for (factor in 1:nFactors){
}

for (item in 1:nItems){
for (factor in 1:nFactors){
if (Qmatrix[item, factor] == 1){
}
}
}
}

Note:

1. The transformed data {} block runs prior to the Markov Chain;
• We use it to create variables that will stay constant throughout the chain
2. Here, we count the number of loadings in the Q-matrix nLoadings
• We then process the Q-matrix to tell Stan the row and column position of each loading in loadingMatrix used in the model {} block
3. This syntax works for any Q-matrix (but only has main effects in the model)

Stan Transformed Parameters Block

transformed parameters{
matrix[nItems, nFactors] lambdaMatrix = rep_matrix(0.0, nItems, nFactors);
matrix[nObs, nFactors] thetaMatrix;

// build matrix for lambdas to multiply theta matrix
}

for (factor in 1:nFactors){
thetaMatrix[,factor] = to_vector(theta[,factor]);
}

}

Note:

1. The transformed parameters {} block runs prior to each iteration of the Markov chain
• This means it affects the estimation of each type of parameters
2. We use it to create:
• thetaMatrix (converting theta from an array to a matrix)
• lambdaMatrix (puts the loadings and zeros from the Q-matrix into correct position)
• lambdaMatrix initialized at zero so we just have to add the loadings in the correct position

Stan Model Block - Factor Scores

model {
lambda ~ multi_normal(meanLambda, covLambda);
thetaCorrL ~ lkj_corr_cholesky(1.0);
theta ~ multi_normal_cholesky(meanTheta, thetaCorrL);

for (item in 1:nItems){
thr[item] ~ multi_normal(meanThr[item], covThr[item]);
Y[item] ~ ordered_logistic(thetaMatrix*lambdaMatrix[item,1:nFactors]', thr[item]);
}
}
• thetaMatrix is a matrix of latent variables for each person with $N \times J$. Generated by MVN with factor mean and factor covaraince

$\bb{\Theta} \sim \text{MVM}(\bb\mu_\Theta, \Sigma_\Theta)$

transformed parameters{
matrix[nObs, nFactors] thetaMatrix;
for (factor in 1:nFactors){
thetaMatrix[,factor] = to_vector(theta[,factor]);
}
}

We need to convert theta from array to a matrix in transformed parameters block.

From Q matrix to loading location matrix Loc

$Q= \bmatrix{ 0\ 1\\ 1\ 0\\ 0\ 1\\ 0\ 1\\ 1\ 0\\ 0\ 1\\ 1\ 0\\ 1\ 0\\ 1\ 0\\ 1\ 1\\ } \text{Loc} = \bmatrix{ 1\ \ 2\\ 2\ \ 1\\ 3\ \ 2\\ 4\ \ 2\\ 5\ \ 1\\ 6\ \ 2\\ 7\ \ 1\\ 8\ \ 1\\ 9\ \ 1\\ 10\ 1\\ 10\ 2\\ }$

$\bb\Lambda_{[\text{Loc}[j, 1], \text{Loc[j,2]}]}=\lambda_{jk} \\ \bb\Lambda= \bmatrix{ 0\ .3\\ .5\ 0\\ 0\ .5\\ 0\ .3\\ .7\ 0\\ 0\ .5\\ .2\ 0\\ .7\ 0\\ .8\ 0\\ .3\ .2\\ }$

Where $j$ denotes the index of lambda.

model {
lambda ~ multi_normal(meanLambda, covLambda);
thetaCorrL ~ lkj_corr_cholesky(1.0);
theta ~ multi_normal_cholesky(meanTheta, thetaCorrL);

for (item in 1:nItems){
thr[item] ~ multi_normal(meanThr[item], covThr[item]);
Y[item] ~ ordered_logistic(thetaMatrix*lambdaMatrix[item,1:nFactors]', thr[item]);
}
}
transformed data{
for (factor in 1:nFactors){
}
for (item in 1:nItems){
for (factor in 1:nFactors){
if (Qmatrix[item, factor] == 1){
}
}
}
}
• Create a location matrix for factor loadings loadingLocation with first column as item index and second column as factor index;
transformed parameters{
matrix[nItems, nFactors] lambdaMatrix = rep_matrix(0.0, nItems, nFactors);
}
}
• lambdaMatrix puts the proposed loadings and zeros from the Q-matrix into correct position

Stan Data Block

data {

// data specifications  =============================================================
int<lower=0> nObs;                            // number of observations
int<lower=0> nItems;                          // number of items
int<lower=0> maxCategory;       // number of categories for each item

// input data  =============================================================
array[nItems, nObs] int<lower=1, upper=5>  Y; // item responses in an array

array[nItems, nFactors] int<lower=0, upper=1> Qmatrix;

// prior specifications =============================================================
array[nItems] vector[maxCategory-1] meanThr;                // prior mean vector for intercept parameters
array[nItems] matrix[maxCategory-1, maxCategory-1] covThr;  // prior covariance matrix for intercept parameters

vector[nItems] meanLambda;         // prior mean vector for discrimination parameters
matrix[nItems, nItems] covLambda;  // prior covariance matrix for discrimination parameters

vector[nFactors] meanTheta;
}

Note:

1. Changes from unidimensional model:
• meanTheta: Factor means (hyperparameters) are added (but we will set these to zero)
• nFactors: Number of latent variables (needed for Q-matrix)
• Qmatrix: Q-matrix for model

Stan Generated Quantities Block

generated quantities{
array[nItems] vector[maxCategory-1] mu;
corr_matrix[nFactors] thetaCorr;

for (item in 1:nItems){
mu[item] = -1*thr[item];
}

thetaCorr = multiply_lower_tri_self_transpose(thetaCorrL);

}

Note:

• Converts thresholds to intercepts mu

• Creates thetaCorr by multiplying Cholesky-factor lower triangle with upper triangle

• We will only use the parameters of thetaCorr when looking at model output

Estimation in Stan

We run Stan the same way we have previously:

modelOrderedLogit_samples = modelOrderedLogit_stan$sample( data = modelOrderedLogit_data, seed = 191120221, chains = 4, parallel_chains = 4, iter_warmup = 2000, iter_sampling = 2000, init = function() list(lambda=rnorm(nItems, mean=5, sd=1)) ) Note: • Smaller chain (model takes a lot longer to run) • Still need to keep loadings positive initially Analysis Results # checking convergence max(modelOrderedLogit_samples$summary(.cores = 6)$rhat, na.rm = TRUE) [1] 1.082978 # item parameter results print(modelOrderedLogit_samples$summary(variables = c("lambda", "mu", "thetaCorr"), .cores = 6) ,n=Inf)
# A tibble: 54 × 10
variable          mean  median      sd     mad       q5    q95  rhat ess_bulk
<chr>            <dbl>   <dbl>   <dbl>   <dbl>    <dbl>  <dbl> <dbl>    <dbl>
1 lambda[1]       2.00    1.99   0.265   0.259     1.59    2.46   1.00   3041.
2 lambda[2]       2.84    2.82   0.382   0.372     2.25    3.51   1.00   2718.
3 lambda[3]       2.40    2.38   0.342   0.338     1.87    2.99   1.00   3657.
4 lambda[4]       2.93    2.90   0.389   0.380     2.32    3.60   1.00   3332.
5 lambda[5]       4.34    4.30   0.597   0.606     3.41    5.38   1.00   2542.
6 lambda[6]       4.23    4.20   0.570   0.560     3.36    5.23   1.00   2611.
7 lambda[7]       2.86    2.84   0.410   0.402     2.24    3.57   1.00   3546.
8 lambda[8]       4.14    4.10   0.566   0.552     3.26    5.12   1.00   2429.
9 lambda[9]       2.91    2.89   0.423   0.421     2.25    3.64   1.00   3071.
10 lambda[10]      2.45    2.42   0.429   0.417     1.80    3.19   1.00   4312.
11 mu[1,1]         1.88    1.87   0.291   0.292     1.42    2.37   1.00   1552.
12 mu[2,1]         0.819   0.811  0.304   0.302     0.325   1.33   1.01    864.
13 mu[3,1]         0.0995  0.102  0.263   0.260    -0.328   0.530  1.01   1005.
14 mu[4,1]         0.998   0.991  0.320   0.317     0.490   1.53   1.00    893.
15 mu[5,1]         1.32    1.31   0.430   0.421     0.641   2.05   1.01    729.
16 mu[6,1]         0.973   0.966  0.418   0.406     0.305   1.67   1.01    741.
17 mu[7,1]        -0.103  -0.103  0.293   0.289    -0.578   0.376  1.01    877.
18 mu[8,1]         0.704   0.697  0.397   0.388     0.0702  1.37   1.01    760.
19 mu[9,1]        -0.0561 -0.0587 0.297   0.294    -0.540   0.435  1.00    877.
20 mu[10,1]       -1.36   -1.35   0.310   0.304    -1.89   -0.869  1.00   1370.
21 mu[1,2]        -0.209  -0.206  0.235   0.229    -0.602   0.172  1.00   1015.
22 mu[2,2]        -1.52   -1.51   0.320   0.321    -2.05   -1.01   1.00   1106.
23 mu[3,2]        -1.10   -1.10   0.276   0.270    -1.56   -0.662  1.00   1075.
24 mu[4,2]        -1.14   -1.13   0.312   0.311    -1.66   -0.637  1.00    940.
25 mu[5,2]        -1.95   -1.94   0.451   0.438    -2.72   -1.24   1.00    974.
26 mu[6,2]        -1.99   -1.98   0.431   0.428    -2.72   -1.30   1.01    947.
27 mu[7,2]        -1.95   -1.94   0.341   0.336    -2.54   -1.41   1.00   1167.
28 mu[8,2]        -1.82   -1.81   0.418   0.412    -2.54   -1.17   1.01    900.
29 mu[9,2]        -1.95   -1.93   0.346   0.339    -2.53   -1.40   1.00   1251.
30 mu[10,2]       -2.60   -2.58   0.368   0.371    -3.23   -2.02   1.00   1954.
31 mu[1,3]        -2.03   -2.02   0.281   0.283    -2.50   -1.58   1.00   1398.
32 mu[2,3]        -3.38   -3.36   0.412   0.409    -4.09   -2.74   1.00   1855.
33 mu[3,3]        -3.68   -3.66   0.437   0.433    -4.43   -3.00   1.00   2948.
34 mu[4,3]        -3.85   -3.83   0.456   0.448    -4.64   -3.13   1.00   1934.
35 mu[5,3]        -4.56   -4.53   0.606   0.589    -5.62   -3.61   1.00   2031.
36 mu[6,3]        -5.61   -5.59   0.675   0.682    -6.75   -4.55   1.00   2530.
37 mu[7,3]        -4.14   -4.13   0.505   0.503    -5.01   -3.35   1.00   2298.
38 mu[8,3]        -6.41   -6.37   0.777   0.766    -7.77   -5.20   1.00   3221.
39 mu[9,3]        -3.24   -3.23   0.422   0.423    -3.96   -2.58   1.00   1797.
40 mu[10,3]       -3.76   -3.74   0.451   0.450    -4.54   -3.04   1.00   2814.
41 mu[1,4]        -3.98   -3.95   0.454   0.448    -4.76   -3.27   1.00   3838.
42 mu[2,4]        -4.91   -4.88   0.573   0.568    -5.90   -4.02   1.00   3794.
43 mu[3,4]        -4.76   -4.74   0.561   0.558    -5.73   -3.90   1.00   4789.
44 mu[4,4]        -4.75   -4.73   0.548   0.542    -5.69   -3.90   1.00   2753.
45 mu[5,4]        -6.83   -6.78   0.848   0.849    -8.31   -5.52   1.00   3543.
46 mu[6,4]        -7.93   -7.88   0.976   0.974    -9.62   -6.40   1.00   5887.
47 mu[7,4]        -5.70   -5.66   0.698   0.702    -6.91   -4.63   1.00   3865.
48 mu[8,4]        -8.48   -8.43   1.10    1.07    -10.4    -6.78   1.00   6211.
49 mu[9,4]        -4.95   -4.91   0.595   0.588    -5.98   -4.03   1.00   3195.
50 mu[10,4]       -4.01   -3.99   0.477   0.472    -4.84   -3.27   1.00   3214.
51 thetaCorr[1,1]  1       1      0       0         1       1     NA        NA
52 thetaCorr[2,1]  0.992   0.994  0.00650 0.00499   0.979   0.999  1.08     41.2
53 thetaCorr[1,2]  0.992   0.994  0.00650 0.00499   0.979   0.999  1.08     41.2
54 thetaCorr[2,2]  1       1      0       0         1       1     NA        NA
# ℹ 1 more variable: ess_tail <dbl>

Code
Lambda_postmean <- modelOrderedLogit_samples$summary(variables = "lambda", .cores = 5)$mean
Q = matrix(c(
0, 1,
1, 0,
0, 1,
0, 1,
1, 0,
0, 1,
1, 0,
1, 0,
1, 0,
0, 1), ncol=2, byrow = T)
Lambda_mat <- Q
i = 0
for (r in 1:nrow(Q)) {
for (c in 1:ncol(Q)) {
if (Q[r, c]) {
i = i + 1
Lambda_mat[r, c] <- Lambda_postmean[i]
}
}
}
colnames(Lambda_mat) <- c("F1", "F2")
rownames(Lambda_mat) <- paste0("Item", 1:10)
Lambda_mat
             F1       F2
Item1  0.000000 2.004086
Item2  2.839446 0.000000
Item3  0.000000 2.400975
Item4  0.000000 2.925028
Item5  4.337551 0.000000
Item6  0.000000 4.228389
Item7  2.861449 0.000000
Item8  4.138962 0.000000
Item9  2.911422 0.000000
Item10 0.000000 2.447148

More visualization: EAP Theta Estimates

Plots of draws from person 1

Relationships of sample EAP of Factor 1 and Factor 2

Wrapping Up

1. Stan makes multidimensional latent variable models fairly easy to implement
• LKJ priors allows for scale identification for standardized factors
• Can use the code mentioned above to model any type of Q-matrix
2. But…
• Estimation is relatively slower because latent variable correlation takes more time to converge.

Missing Data

Dealing with Missing Data in Stan

If you ever attempted to analyze missing data in Stan, you likely received an error message:

Error: Variable 'Y' has NA values.

That is because, by default, Stan does not model missing data

• Instead, we have to get Stan to work with the data we have (the values that are not missing)

• That does not mean remove cases where any observed variables are missing

Example Missing Data

To make things a bit easier, I’m only turning one value into missing data (the first person’s response to the first item)

conspiracyItems = conspiracyData[,1:10]
conspiracyItems[1, 1] = NA

Note that all code will work with as missing as you have

• Observed variables do have to have some values that are not missing

Stan Syntax: Multidimensional Model

We will use the previous syntax with graded response modeling.

The Q-matrix this time will be a single column vector (one dimension)

Qmatrix = matrix(data = 1, nrow = ncol(conspiracyItems), ncol = 1)

Qmatrix
      [,1]
[1,]    1
[2,]    1
[3,]    1
[4,]    1
[5,]    1
[6,]    1
[7,]    1
[8,]    1
[9,]    1
[10,]    1

Stan Model Block for Missing Values

model {

lambda ~ multi_normal(meanLambda, covLambda);
thetaCorrL ~ lkj_corr_cholesky(1.0);
theta ~ multi_normal_cholesky(meanTheta, thetaCorrL);

for (item in 1:nItems){
thr[item] ~ multi_normal(meanThr[item], covThr[item]);
Y[item, observed[item, 1:nObserved[item]]] ~ ordered_logistic(thetaMatrix[observed[item, 1:nObserved[item]],]*lambdaMatrix[item,1:nFactors]', thr[item]);
}

}

Notes:

• Big change is in Y:

• Previous: Y[item]

• Now: Y[item, observed[item,1:nObserveed[item]]]

• The part after the comma is a list of who provided responses to the item (input in the data block)
• Mirroring this is a change to thetaMatrix[observed[item, 1:nObserved[item]],]

• Keeps only the latent variables for the persons who provide responses

Stan Data Block

data {

// data specifications  =============================================================
int<lower=0> nObs;                            // number of observations
int<lower=0> nItems;                          // number of items
int<lower=0> maxCategory;       // number of categories for each item
array[nItems] int nObserved;
array[nItems, nObs] array[nItems] int observed;

// input data  =============================================================
array[nItems, nObs] int<lower=-1, upper=5>  Y; // item responses in an array

array[nItems, nFactors] int<lower=0, upper=1> Qmatrix;

// prior specifications =============================================================
array[nItems] vector[maxCategory-1] meanThr;                // prior mean vector for intercept parameters
array[nItems] matrix[maxCategory-1, maxCategory-1] covThr;  // prior covariance matrix for intercept parameters

vector[nItems] meanLambda;         // prior mean vector for discrimination parameters
matrix[nItems, nItems] covLambda;  // prior covariance matrix for discrimination parameters

vector[nFactors] meanTheta;
}

Data Block Notes

• array[nItems] int Observed : The number of observations with non-missing data for each item
• array[nItems, nObs] array[nItems] int observed : A listing of which observations have non-missing data for each item
• Here, the size of the array is equal to the size of the data matrix
• If there were no missing data at all, the listing of observations with non-missing data would equal this size
2. Stan uses these arrays to only model data that are not missing
• The values of observed serve to select only cases in Y that are not missing

Building Non-Missing Data Arrays

To build these arrays, we can use a loop in R:

observed = matrix(data = -1, nrow = nrow(conspiracyItems), ncol = ncol(conspiracyItems))
nObserved = NULL
for (variable in 1:ncol(conspiracyItems)){
nObserved = c(nObserved, length(which(!is.na(conspiracyItems[, variable]))))
observed[1:nObserved[variable], variable] = which(!is.na(conspiracyItems[, variable]))
}

For the item that has the first case missing, this gives:

nObserved[1]
[1] 176
observed[,1] # row as person, column as number of observation of this item
  [1]   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19
[19]  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37
[37]  38  39  40  41  42  43  44  45  46  47  48  49  50  51  52  53  54  55
[55]  56  57  58  59  60  61  62  63  64  65  66  67  68  69  70  71  72  73
[73]  74  75  76  77  78  79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86  87  88  89  90  91
[91]  92  93  94  95  96  97  98  99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109
[109] 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127
[127] 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145
[145] 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163
[163] 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177  -1

The item has 176 observed responses and one missing

• Entries 1 through 176 of observed[,1] list who has non-missing data

• The 177th entry of observed[,1] is -1 (but won’t be used in Stan)

Array Indexing

We can use the values of observed[,1] to have Stan only select the corresponding data points that are non-missing

To demonstrate, in R, here is all of the data for the first item

conspiracyItems[,1]
  [1] NA  3  4  2  2  1  4  2  3  2  1  3  2  1  2  2  2  2  3  2  1  1  1  1  4
[26]  4  4  3  4  3  3  1  2  1  2  3  1  2  1  2  1  1  2  2  4  3  3  1  1  4
[51]  1  2  1  3  1  1  2  1  4  2  2  2  1  5  3  2  3  3  1  3  2  1  2  1  1
[76]  2  3  4  3  3  2  2  1  3  3  1  2  3  1  4  2  1  2  5  5  2  3  1  3  2
[101]  3  5  2  4  1  3  3  4  3  2  2  4  3  3  4  3  2  2  1  1  3  4  3  2  1
[126]  4  3  2  2  3  4  5  1  5  3  1  3  3  3  2  2  1  1  3  1  3  3  4  1  1
[151]  4  1  4  2  1  1  1  2  2  1  4  2  1  2  4  1  2  5  3  2  1  3  3  3  2
[176]  3  3

And here, we select the non-missing using the index values in observed :

observed[1:nObserved[1], 1]
  [1]   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19
[19]  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37
[37]  38  39  40  41  42  43  44  45  46  47  48  49  50  51  52  53  54  55
[55]  56  57  58  59  60  61  62  63  64  65  66  67  68  69  70  71  72  73
[73]  74  75  76  77  78  79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86  87  88  89  90  91
[91]  92  93  94  95  96  97  98  99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109
[109] 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127
[127] 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145
[145] 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163
[163] 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177
conspiracyItems[observed[1:nObserved, 1], 1]
  [1] 3 4 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2
[38] 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 3 3 1 1 4 1 2 1 3 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 2 1 5 3 2 3 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 1
[75] 2 3 4 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 4 2 1 2 5 5 2 3 1 3 2 3 5 2 4 1 3 3 4 3 2 2 4
[112] 3 3 4 3 2 2 1 1 3 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 2 3 4 5 1 5 3 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 3 1 3 3 4 1
[149] 1 4 1 4 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 4 2 1 2 4 1 2 5 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 3

The values of observed[1:nObserved,1] leads to only using the non-missing data

Change Missing NA to Nonsense Values

Finally, we must ensure all data into Stan have no NA values

• Dr. Templin’s recommendation: Change all NA values to something that cannot be modeled

• Picking -1 here: it cannot be used with ordered_logit() likelihood
• This ensures that Stan won’t model the data by accident

• But, we must remember this if we are using the data in other steps like PPMC
# Fill in NA values in Y
Y = conspiracyItems
for (variable in 1:ncol(conspiracyItems)){
Y[which(is.na(Y[,variable])),variable] = -1
}

Running Stan

With our missing values denotes, we can run Stan as we have previously

modelOrderedLogit_data = list(
nObs = nObs,
nItems = nItems,
maxCategory = maxCategory,
nObserved = nObserved,
observed = t(observed),
Y = t(Y),
nFactors = ncol(Qmatrix),
Qmatrix = Qmatrix,
meanThr = thrMeanMatrix,
covThr = thrCovArray,
meanLambda = lambdaMeanVecHP,
covLambda = lambdaCovarianceMatrixHP,
meanTheta = thetaMean
)

modelOrderedLogit_samples = modelOrderedLogit_stan$sample( data = modelOrderedLogit_data, seed = 191120221, chains = 4, parallel_chains = 4, iter_warmup = 2000, iter_sampling = 2000, init = function() list(lambda=rnorm(nItems, mean=5, sd=1)) ) Data Analysis Results # checking convergence max(modelOrderedLogitNoMiss_samples$summary(.cores = 6)$rhat, na.rm = TRUE) [1] 1.008265 # item parameter results print(modelOrderedLogitNoMiss_samples$summary(variables = c("lambda", "mu"), .cores = 6) ,n=Inf)
# A tibble: 50 × 10
variable     mean  median    sd   mad       q5    q95  rhat ess_bulk ess_tail
<chr>       <dbl>   <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>    <dbl>  <dbl> <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
1 lambda[1]  2.01    2.00   0.267 0.264   1.59    2.46   1.00    1816.    3503.
2 lambda[2]  2.85    2.83   0.381 0.374   2.26    3.51   1.00    2018.    3514.
3 lambda[3]  2.39    2.37   0.342 0.336   1.86    2.98   1.01    2224.    3805.
4 lambda[4]  2.90    2.88   0.386 0.383   2.31    3.57   1.00    2112.    4057.
5 lambda[5]  4.30    4.26   0.604 0.594   3.38    5.36   1.00    1686.    3370.
6 lambda[6]  4.18    4.15   0.555 0.542   3.32    5.13   1.00    1948.    3628.
7 lambda[7]  2.88    2.86   0.417 0.413   2.24    3.59   1.00    1979.    3752.
8 lambda[8]  4.16    4.13   0.565 0.548   3.30    5.16   1.00    1805.    3518.
9 lambda[9]  2.90    2.87   0.429 0.431   2.24    3.64   1.00    2515.    4050.
10 lambda[1…  2.41    2.39   0.421 0.408   1.76    3.17   1.00    2734.    3889.
11 mu[1,1]    1.87    1.87   0.287 0.286   1.41    2.36   1.00    1328.    2908.
12 mu[2,1]    0.805   0.798  0.304 0.299   0.317   1.32   1.01     698.    1979.
13 mu[3,1]    0.0942  0.0880 0.255 0.249  -0.322   0.525  1.01     855.    2328.
14 mu[4,1]    0.982   0.976  0.309 0.300   0.487   1.50   1.01     825.    2510.
15 mu[5,1]    1.29    1.28   0.418 0.422   0.629   1.98   1.01     545.    1641.
16 mu[6,1]    0.947   0.935  0.392 0.388   0.324   1.61   1.01     651.    2064.
17 mu[7,1]   -0.116  -0.115  0.288 0.284  -0.591   0.358  1.01     743.    1984.
18 mu[8,1]    0.680   0.672  0.387 0.380   0.0485  1.33   1.01     536.    1353.
19 mu[9,1]   -0.0700 -0.0693 0.295 0.295  -0.560   0.415  1.01     718.    2146.
20 mu[10,1]  -1.35   -1.34   0.299 0.294  -1.86   -0.883  1.01     984.    3276.
21 mu[1,2]   -0.197  -0.194  0.234 0.231  -0.584   0.191  1.01    1039.    2640.
22 mu[2,2]   -1.53   -1.53   0.315 0.311  -2.06   -1.04   1.00    1022.    2850.
23 mu[3,2]   -1.10   -1.10   0.270 0.267  -1.56   -0.665  1.00     811.    2432.
24 mu[4,2]   -1.13   -1.12   0.308 0.305  -1.65   -0.638  1.01     809.    2367.
25 mu[5,2]   -1.95   -1.94   0.434 0.431  -2.68   -1.26   1.00     951.    2479.
26 mu[6,2]   -1.97   -1.96   0.419 0.412  -2.68   -1.31   1.01     800.    2150.
27 mu[7,2]   -1.96   -1.95   0.336 0.338  -2.54   -1.43   1.00     906.    2466.
28 mu[8,2]   -1.84   -1.83   0.408 0.410  -2.53   -1.19   1.01     807.    2086.
29 mu[9,2]   -1.95   -1.94   0.339 0.330  -2.52   -1.40   1.01    1076.    2510.
30 mu[10,2]  -2.58   -2.57   0.356 0.351  -3.19   -2.03   1.00    1800.    4116.
31 mu[1,3]   -2.03   -2.02   0.281 0.280  -2.51   -1.58   1.00    1417.    3411.
32 mu[2,3]   -3.40   -3.38   0.402 0.403  -4.08   -2.75   1.00    1660.    3827.
33 mu[3,3]   -3.67   -3.66   0.427 0.426  -4.40   -3.00   1.00    2626.    5222.
34 mu[4,3]   -3.82   -3.80   0.446 0.442  -4.59   -3.12   1.00    1672.    4166.
35 mu[5,3]   -4.53   -4.50   0.585 0.583  -5.53   -3.61   1.00    1842.    3811.
36 mu[6,3]   -5.58   -5.54   0.678 0.673  -6.74   -4.54   1.00    1989.    4938.
37 mu[7,3]   -4.16   -4.14   0.498 0.493  -5.00   -3.37   1.00    1939.    4002.
38 mu[8,3]   -6.43   -6.39   0.776 0.762  -7.79   -5.21   1.00    2306.    4827.
39 mu[9,3]   -3.23   -3.22   0.412 0.409  -3.94   -2.58   1.00    1505.    3950.
40 mu[10,3]  -3.74   -3.72   0.453 0.456  -4.50   -3.03   1.00    2764.    5306.
41 mu[1,4]   -3.98   -3.96   0.464 0.457  -4.78   -3.24   1.00    3660.    5915.
42 mu[2,4]   -4.93   -4.90   0.575 0.580  -5.89   -4.02   1.00    3111.    5402.
43 mu[3,4]   -4.76   -4.73   0.561 0.553  -5.72   -3.88   1.00    3842.    6058.
44 mu[4,4]   -4.72   -4.70   0.541 0.540  -5.65   -3.86   1.00    2396.    4966.
45 mu[5,4]   -6.77   -6.71   0.822 0.818  -8.19   -5.51   1.00    3176.    4958.
46 mu[6,4]   -7.88   -7.83   0.973 0.969  -9.57   -6.39   1.00    4493.    5380.
47 mu[7,4]   -5.71   -5.67   0.694 0.685  -6.92   -4.63   1.00    3581.    5497.
48 mu[8,4]   -8.49   -8.42   1.08  1.08  -10.3    -6.81   1.00    4347.    5604.
49 mu[9,4]   -4.92   -4.88   0.585 0.577  -5.94   -4.03   1.00    2817.    5381.
50 mu[10,4]  -3.99   -3.98   0.480 0.479  -4.82   -3.25   1.00    2984.    5612.

Code
LambdaNomissing_postmean <- modelOrderedLogitNoMiss_samples$summary(variables = "lambda", .cores = 5)$mean

matrix(LambdaNomissing_postmean, ncol = 1)
          [,1]
[1,] 2.013096
[2,] 2.853768
[3,] 2.385014
[4,] 2.901146
[5,] 4.300776
[6,] 4.179041
[7,] 2.881693
[8,] 4.158078
[9,] 2.897383
[10,] 2.413740
Code
Lambda_mat
             F1       F2
Item1  0.000000 2.004086
Item2  2.839446 0.000000
Item3  0.000000 2.400975
Item4  0.000000 2.925028
Item5  4.337551 0.000000
Item6  0.000000 4.228389
Item7  2.861449 0.000000
Item8  4.138962 0.000000
Item9  2.911422 0.000000
Item10 0.000000 2.447148

Wrapping Up

Today, we showed how to skip over missing data in Stan

• Slight modification needed to syntax

• Assumes missing at random

Of note, we could (but didn’t) also build models for missing data in Stan

• Using the transformed parameters block

Finally, Stan’s missing data methods are quite different from JAGS

• JAGS imputes any missing data at each step of a Markov chain using Gibbs sampling.